Updated: Dec 11, 2020
Curious why birds that share the grosbeak surname are not related? We are here to share an answer!
Bird names are a source of silly frustration for me. We have the power and knowledge to give birds better names, yet we cling to history and hold on to bird names that are not useful and often outdated. The grosbeaks are a prime example of this issue. Grosbeaks across two families in North America share a surname from a time in history when naturalists had to "guess" taxonomy and lineage of birds based on physical appearance. While early naturalists did the best they could, once the evidence was presented that two birds with a shared name had little shared lineage, we should have abruptly fixed the error. However, the so-called "bird authorities" have done nothing to lessen the confusion of English bird names. So, here we are. Read on to learn about the history of the 'grosbeak' name.
Gross of Grosbeaks
In the US and Canada, there are five regularly breeding species of "grosbeaks." Two exist in the finch family, and three occur in the cardinal family. Additionally, there are two vagrant grosbeaks that appear in the southern US, the Yellow Grosbeak and the Crimson-collared Grosbeak. Before we break down each regularly occurring species, we will examine the name 'grosbeak' closely.
O Grosbeak, What is in a Name?
The name grosbeak is pretty simple to understand. Gros(s) originates from the late Latin word grossus. From there, it was morphed into gros (or grosse), meaning "large." Beak follows a similar route from Latin beccus, to Old French bec. In the late 1600s, grosbec was applied to Old Word passerines. Thus, the "large beaks" were born. Which bird was the first given the grosbeak moniker? I have no idea.
That paragraph ended in an unsatisfying way. Do not worry, we may actually solve a mystery or two before this post has ended.
Here are the five breeding grosbeaks of the US:
The Finch Grosbeaks
The Pine Grosbeak male has red upperparts, white wingbars, and beak that is hardly a "grosbeak." When compared to the bills of the other birds listed in this post, the Pine Grosbeak is at the small end of the spectrum.
Evening Grosbeak males have yellowish upperparts with a dark head and a pale to yellowish "grosbeak." They also show a yellow "eyebrow."
The Cardinal Grosbeaks
Black-headed Grosbeak males have a black head, brilliant rusty/orange breast, and a darkened "grosbeak." Females can be confused with Rose-breasted Grosbeak, but that is a topic for a different post!
Rose-breasted Grosbeak males also have a black head, with a bright red bib, and a pinkish "grosbeak."
The Blue Grosbeak has a blue body, rusty upper wing coverts, and a darker "grosbeak." Some will confuse the males AND females of the Blue Grosbeak with Indigo Buntings.
Why Use Grosbeak Across Families?
This is the question of the day. Early naturalists may have assumed that all birds with large beaks were probably related. Since the name originated in France, the finches were likely named first. Then, when birds were being studied in the New World, grosbeak was applied to the similar-looking birds found here. This is the same issue we see in the American Robin, which is not a true robin but a thrush.
In fact, in 1760 a French zoologist, Mathurin Brisson, gave the (possibly) original name of the Rose-breasted Grosbeak as the Louisiana Grosbeak. However, the zoologist did not conform correctly to the binomial system (scientific naming system) when describing its scientific name. Then, in the correction of this error, in 1766, Carl Linnaeus reconfigured the scientific name of the Rose-breasted Grosbeak to Loxia ludoviciana. If you are unaware, Loxia is the genus of.... the crossbills (which are finches)! Loxia originates from Greek and translates as "crosswise," while ludoviciana translates as Louisiana. We now know this is not the case, as the Rose-breasted and Black-headed Grosbeaks are now placed in the genus Pheucticus, and the cardinal family. This confusion of the cardinal grosbeaks and finch grosbeaks, created by early naturalists, has been allowed to continue for generations (blame Brisson or the Louisiana Grosbeak). While the name is descriptive, it can be confusing to understand the lack of additional shared traits between grosbeaks.
Time for a name change? Ab-so-flocking-lutely. Who is with me!?
Did we just solve a bird case? I think so. You can call me Sher-lark Holmes.
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(Sorry that post became so... Latin. That much italics usage is never a good idea.)